They suffer from the traumatic experience of displacement even after permanent settlement in the U. We thank the two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. Labor, Laws and Love.
Yet, these ethnic differences in perceived social standing do not necessarily conform to the differences in their objective socioeconomic characteristics. The objective and subjective characteristics were not aligned across gender groups. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
Data on perceived social standing prior to immigration would enable us to make clearer comparisons in the case of immigrants. Less than high school graduate reference group.
Table 1 presents the descriptive statistics of perceived social standing and the three objective measures of socioeconomic status education, occupation, and household income-toneeds ratio among Asian immigrants by ethnicity and gender. In the analyses, we controlled for three objective measures of socioeconomic status: A majority of Asian immigrants came to the U.
Finally, the results are consistent with our hypothesis that the effect of migrating to join other family members on perceived social standing is positive and significant for Vietnamese, and negative and not significant for Filipinos and Chinese. Nonetheless, gender is an important factor throughout the immigration process Hondagneu-Sotelo, ; Pedraza, Moreover, as the data are not longitudinal, we cannot ascertain causal relations among variables.